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In the world of carpets and rugs weaving is the process of putting a row of dyed strings as weft through a row of uncolored strings as warp allover a carpet following a design. Then to comb the weft to stand exactly in their places the same as the design and at last to cut off the end part of the welt with a knife and organize them.
There are tow types of weavers in Iran: 1) City weavers and 2) Tribal or villager weavers.
They differ in materials used, weaving techniques, and knotting techniques, but the most difference between them is in preparing of the designs for weaving. Commonly, tribal and villager designs are learned from generation to generation, from fathers to sons and mothers to daughters, even design may depend on the feelings and the imagination of the weaver in that very moment of weaving and that will prove itself as a pure art, the art of rug weaving. One of the most popular styles of them would be the famous “Gabbeh”, that nowadays there have been advantages in designing this type of magnificent style.
The other weaving type is the modern one using graphic techniques. Normally, their designs on graph papers are the size of the real carpets, that’s how in some cases there are designs in size of a room.
After the design on graph paper is complete, the place of the knots will be located, and then the colors will be added to it, it will be cut into horizontal pieces that every piece would be one-tenth of the graph paper design.
Then each piece will be stuck on to a cardboard and be polished. The rug weaver master will work on it and at the same time reads the design to the other rug weavers, or he would sit down between two parallel rug looms which one weavers is sitting behind each, and reads the design to them, and simultaneously looks at the back of each rug and corrects the weavers mistakes, so this is the reason that most of the rugs in Iran are woven as a couple, because although they would need two weavers but one design and just one weaver is enough to work it out.

A Brief History of Persian Carpets

There are some differences between carpet and rug but we use them as one word for a textile that covers floors which has design and pattern.
The Persian word for carpet is "Farsh", an Arabic word which means to spread on the floor. Another word which is used is "Ghali". It's said it came from the Turkish word "Qalin".
The cold weather in Iran’s Plateau made it necessary for Nomadic Tribes to weave the first carpets from wool of animals.

The oldest Persian rug was found in the tomb of Pazyryk ruler in southern Siberia. It belongs to 500 B.C. There were many famous Persian carpets such as: "Bahar of Khosro" (Spring of Khosro), "Chahar Fasl" (Four Seasons), The “Cyrus” carpets and so on.
The first king who encouraged contents and trade with Europe was Shah Abbas (1571-1629). So the most important era for Persian Carpet was Safavid Era (1499-1722).

We can divide Iranian Carpets to some eras: Pre-Islamic Era, Arab Caliphates Era, Seljuk Era, Mongol Era, Safavid Era and recent years.
The rugs are called by the name of village or city which they are designed and woven at for example, Tabriz, Kashan and... . The other way to name them is the size, for example; Ghali and Ghaliche. Color is another way to differ carpets.

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